Imam sadIiq: IF I Percieve his time I will serve him in all of my life days
16 significant points of Ammar’s conversation with Zul Kalaa’

16 significant points of Ammar’s

conversation with Zul Kalaa’

 The narrations that we mentioned regarding the conversation that took place between Ammar and Zul Kalaa’ hold many significant points which deserve to be studied in detail:

  1. After hearing the Holy Prophet’s prophecy, and finding out the authenticity of its association with his holiness, Zul Kalaa’ became certain that what he has heard is true and it is the saying of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.).

As he was tricked by the deceits and conspiracies of Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas and did not recognize them worthwhile, he presumed that due to Ammar’s presence in the army of Imam Ali (a.s.), he will be able to stop them from fighting and compel them to make peace.

Therefore, he requested his cousin Abu Nooh, who was one of the most powerful soldier of Imam Ali’s army, to go along with him in order to meet Amr e Aas hoping to end the bloodshed and reconcile with the help of his conversation with him.

But he was unaware of this fact that Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas were not fighting Imam Ali (a.s.) for the sake of Islam’s progress, but their fight was for power and government, and Othman’s gown was nothing but a medium of deceiving the innocent people.

 Being optimistic about the misleading politicians brings no positive result but rather upholds the misguidance and destruction of humanity.

  1. In this incident, Amr e Aas accepts that he himself heard this Hadith from the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), and after being definite about Ammar’s presence in the army of Amir al-Momineen (a.s.), instead of joining him, he wishes to meet Ammar in order to find a way that can end the incident in his benefit, or makes Zul Kalaa’ and his friend doubtful and sceptic. With this purpose, he moves ahead to meet Ammar.

The motive of politicians behind the meetings, talks and sessions which they hold with others, is nothing but the strengthening of their own goals; it’s never about finding the true path or serving the people.

  1. Zul Kalaa’ had so many friends that if he would have joined Imam Ali’s army, it would have created a conflict in the Syrian army. As Amr e Aas was aware of this reality, he designed a plot to stop this incident from occurring.

That plot was to misuse the issue of unity and peace. With the excuse of the existing unity between the two armies, based on their faith on God, Kabah and Quran, he intended to be relieved of a war that was showing signs of the Syrian Army’s crushing defeat, and to prevent Zul Kalaa and his friends from joining the other army because it would mark their defeat evidently.

Therefore, he began to recite ‘Shahadatain’ (witnessing Allah’s oneness and Prophet’s prophet-hood) at the very first moment of his meeting with the commander of Imam Ali’s army in order to portray himself as a Muslim, but Ammar said in reply: ‘Be silent! You have distanced yourself from it’.

Why did Ammar give such a reply to Amr e Aas?

Ans: He replied in such a manner because as per the belief of that great companions of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h), whoever did not believe in the Imam of his time, has even distanced himself from bearing witness to the oneness of God and the prophet-hood of Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.). As per the belief of that great man, ‘Shahadatain’ will be effective only with the third ‘Shahadat’, and this reality was evident from the saying of that dignified personality of the Islamic world: ‘Be silent! You have distanced yourself from it’.

          Ammar, apart from being a faithful and brave person, also had expertise in oration, he said to Amr e Aas: ‘Do you wish to hear such a statement which will associate you to infidelity even before you rise from your position, and you will approve of it yourself?

          Meanwhile, Amr e Aas felt that he was overpowered with the words of Ammar, therefore he addressed him with a nickname and said: O Aba Yaqzaan! In this army, you are the most followed and obeyed person out of all; for the sake of God, ask them to keep their weapons away from the killings…Why do you fight against us? Do we not worship the same God? Do we not pray in the direction of your Qibla or do we not invite towards what you invite? Do we not recite your Book and have faith in your Prophet (p.b.u.h.)?

          At that time, the grand companion of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), and the friend and supporter of Imam Ali (a.s.) began to speak, and regarded the worship of Allah, the religion, Qibla, the Book of Allah and His Prophet (p.b.u.h.), all for himself and his friends, and said: ‘These are not related to you and your friends’. Then he mentioned the command given by the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) about the fight against Nakitheen (the oath breakers of Jamal), and Qasiteen (the oppressors of Siffeen), and then he mentioned the Holy Prophet’s saying that commands everyone to follow Imam Ali (a.s.).

          The point that is worth focusing is that Amr e Aas regarded the Book of Allah, Qibla, the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and the worship of one God as the point of unity and as a medium of ending the war, but the powerful commander of the Iraqi Army rejected them and not just refused to accept the unity of Qibla, Book, Prophet, and God’s worship, as the point of oneness, but he added: ‘Qibla, Book etc. does not concern you and your friends’.

          This is a reality which is believed by both the Shias and Sunnis; because Shias don’t accept a sect (Nasibi) which seems to be unified on the basis of the Book, Qibla, Prophet and belief in One God, as Muslims and declare them as infidels.

          Many of the Sunnis also refuse to accept many Muslim groups, who believe in the Prophet, Quran and Qibla, and also have faith in Allah, as Muslims at all and have rejected them and declared them infidel. Therefore, how is it possible to consider the unity and oneness of a group merely on the basis of having faith in the same Book, Qibla, Prophet and God?

  1. All these are for an individual who actually believes in God, Prophet, Book and Qibla; but if his actual faith is based on harmony and politics, or in other words, if it’s based on hypocrisy - like the faith of Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas, then how is it possible to consider these people unified with the men of Allah?
  2. It is notable that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said in his prophesies: ‘‘a group of people will indulge in deceit and will be examined but will become entangled in it’’. Then he commands Imam Ali (a.s.) that the mode of behaviour against these people is to fight them; even if they pray in the direction of Kabah and consider Quran a heavenly book!

Ibn e Abil Hadid says with reference to this: A man stood in the presence of Imam Ali (a.s.) and asked: “O Amir al-Momineen, tell us about this disturbance and whether you enquired about it from the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.).

Imam Ali (a.s.) said: When the Almighty sent down the verse:

(الم* أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن یُتْرَکُوا أَن یَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَہُمْ لَا یُفْتَنُونَ)

 ‘Do men imagine that they will be left (at ease) because they say, We believe, and will not be tested with affliction?’[1]

I came to know that the disturbance will not befall us so long as the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) is among us. So I said, “O Prophet of Allah, what is this disturbance of which Allah, the Sublime, has informed you?” And he replied, “O Ali, my people will create trouble after me”.

Amir al-Momineen used to speak about this disturbance and therefore recalled Amr bil Ma’roof and Nahi an’il Munkar saying: ‘It is obligatory on you to attach yourself with the Book of Allah’. It means whenever a conspiracy arises and people get entangled in it, it is obligatory on you to attach yourself with the Book of Allah. This was the reason why a person stood up and asked about the disturbances.

This report, which has been narrated from the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and many of the reporters have narrated it from the saying of Imam Ali (a.s.), requires deep study. It is in this manner:

The Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said to Imam Ali (a.s.):

“God has made obligatory on you to do Jihad against those individuals who fell in deceit, just like he made obligatory for me to do Jihad against the idolaters.”[2]

Imam Ali (a.s.) said:

“I asked the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.): What is this conspiracy regarding which Jihad is obligatory on me?”

He replied: “There a groups which bear witness that there is not God but the unique God and I am the Messenger of God, but they will oppose my tradition.”

I asked: “O Messenger of Allah! For what reason should I fight them while they also bear witness like I do?”

He replied: “For the Bid’ats (changes) they will bring in the religion and will oppose the order of the government.”

I said: “O Messenger of Allah! You are promising me the grade of martyrdom, now request the Almighty to provide me with the position of martyrdom before your holiness”.

He replied: “In that case, who will fight the oath breakers, the oppressors and those who will exit the religion? Indeed, I have promised you the grade of martyrdom and you will soon be martyred; your head will be striked with sword and your beard will be coloured with your blood, how would you endure that time? “

I said: “O Messenger of Allah! It is not the time of patience but the time of gratitude.”

He said: “Indeed, you are right. Now prepare yourself for strife as you will have to face it.”

I said: “O Messenger of Allah! If only you could brighten it for me?”

He replied: “Soon after my demise, my nation will indulge in affliction and will be tested. They will misinterpret the Holy Quran and will act upon their own will. Wine will be made Halal on the name of grape juice, bribe will be made Halal on the name of gifts, and interest will be made Halal on the name of trade, and they will distort the meanings of Quran, and the misguiding words will prevail.

(When such a time occurs) Firstly, remain in your house until you take charge of the government, and when you will begin to govern, chests will fill with jealousy against you and situation will become inverted for you; at that time, you will fight for the interpretation of the Holy Quran, just like you fought for the its revelation; and this second case is not any less difficult than the first one.”

I asked: “O Messenger of Allah! How should I deal with those who will be entangled in conspiracies after your demise and on which position should I consider them? On the position of deceit or the position of turning back from the religion?”

He said: “On the position of deceits in which they will be immersed until they are submerged by justice.”

I asked: “O Messenger of Allah! Will justice submerge them from us or from others?”

 He replied: “From us, as it has begun with us and will end on us, and the Almighty will bless their hearts, by us, with love after idolatry.”

I said: “We praise Allah for the blessings which He has bestowed upon us out of His bounty”.[3]

If we study this narration mentioned by both the Sunni and Shia clerics, the perceptions regarding faith will alter for many of us. Carefully study this narration twice and open the doors of guidance for yourself.

  1.               As per the aforementioned incident, Ammar counted himself as one among those who were involved in the killing of Othman. According to this narration, Ammar took part in the killing of Othman. In this case, as per the narrations which have arrived from the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), which praise Ammar and the steadfastness of his path and character, we cannot denounce him because for killing Othman and Othman’s gown was a trap that helped them kill Ammar. Moreover, the view of Prophet (p.b.u.h.) about Othman also becomes evident in this manner.  
  1. Even though Mu’awiyah regarded Ammar as a black careless slave, but he knew that his personality was so significant among the people that it was possible for him to stimulate his army and make them revolt against him. This shows that the rulers think so low of their opponents and depict them as worthless.

             This strategy of Mu’awiyah was to degrade Ammar and defame his character, so that he could deceive the Syrian people and prevent them from his guidance.

  1. As Amr e Aas was not capable of referring to Ammar as a black slave and defaming his actions, he designed another plot and as Zul Kalaa’ did not get satisfied by the conversation that took place between Arm e Aas and Ammar, Amr said to him: Ammar will soon leave them and join hands with us!

We conclude from his actions that the politicians seek aid of all kinds of schemes and lies for the purpose of proving their point.

  1. As Zul Kalaa’ was like all the other people who get deceived by the treacheries of the politicians, he remained on the wrong path. If he possessed the intelligence and wisdom, which every believer should possess, he should have selected the company of Ammar after hearing the narration. And supposedly, if Ammar would have joined another army later, he could have done the same in obedience of Ammar. But because of being deceived by Amr e Aas, he gave away his life on the wrong path whereas he could attain the eternal life by fighting the wrong doers for a few hours.

He did not know how delighted Amr e Aas was on his death. Zul Kalaa’ was killed on the same day when Ammar e Yasir was martyred, and Amr e Aas said to Mu’awiyah: I don’t know that the death of which of the two made me happier.

  1.  Those who have a social personality, should know that people watch their actions carefully. As his personality has an influence over the people, they observe his character and words with full attention and follow him.

Therefore, if they choose the wrong path, they will not only misguide themselves but also drag a group of people towards misguidance. If they are given a choice between two wrongs or between wrong and right, and they chose the wrong one, a vast group of people will choose the same wrong option because of their choice and belief, and they will be held responsible for it on the Day of Resurrection.

As Amr e Aas knew that Zul Kalaa’ has a social influence and he has the ability to take away a vast group of Syrian soldiers towards Imam Ali (a.s.), hence he said to Mu’awiyah: ‘If Zul Kalaa’ would have remained alive after the death of Ammar, he would definitely take all his friends away from us and join hands with them, which would ruin the situation for us.

  1. It was not only Zul Kalaa’ who was aware of the Prophetic prophecy, but the majority of Syrian soldiers were aware of it, therefore, there arose a conflict between them after the martyrdom of Ammar, but Mu’awiyah immediately plotted a new strategy and spread the rumour that Ammar was killed by someone who brought him to the battlefield! His words were effective on the common Syrian people and it stopped their conversations.

The apparent defeat faced by the truth against the wrong was caused by the following two reasons in the entire history:

  1. The conspiracies and plots laid by the faithless politicians.
  2. The easily trusting nature of the people that caused them to accept whatever they heard and be influenced by false stories which resulted in their support for the treacherous politicians.
  1. To whichever extent may truth be sour and difficult, but at last, it shows the way (although for a few), and guides the people, and separates them from the common men. Even in the Battle of Siffeen, where the majority got deceived by the treacheries of Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas, but a few people from Mu’awiyah’s army, like Abdullah bin Suwaid, joined Imam Ali’s army after the martyrdom of Ammar.

The joining of their hands with the army of Imam Ali (a.s.) enraged Mu’awiyah and he sent a message for Amr e Aas: You have ruined the Syrian people for me; is it necessary for you to say all that you heard from the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.)?

  1. Amr e Aas replied to Mu’awiyah’s objection, and like the politicians who try to blame others for all their sins and errors, they became angry with each other and Amr e Aas decided to separate himself from Mu’awiyah; but the politicians know that it is necessary to live in harmony with each other in order to attain the worldly motives and desires, hence they made peace with each other and raised the flag of injustice against justice by setting the war ablaze again.
  2.   One of the most significant and crucial points that should be understood by everyone, and it should be known that this point is extreme valuable because the life of a nation’s beliefs is attached to it, is that history repeats itself.

We should all know that most of the incidents that have taken place and filled the pages of history, will repeat themselves in another form and colour. If we feel saddened after studying our history and the historical and religious incidences that occurred in the past, like the deceit of Amr e Aas and the immorality of Abu Musa Ash’ari, then we should be very careful that we do not stand ourselves in the same row.

If Abu Musa and Amr e Aas united with each other in order to set Imam Ali (a.s.) aside, and Amr e Aas chose Mu’awiyah after deceiving Abu Musa Ash’ari, then we should also not destroy the Shiite sect, by setting aside the Shiite values and beliefs, so that the followers of Amr e Aas and Mu’awiyah become dominant.

If it is such that our motive should be unity and oneness, and the necessity of abstaining a few values and beliefs of Shias is felt, then how many values have been abstained by the Sunnis?

Is this unity not similar to the unity of Amr e Aas and Abu Musa Ash’ari? If it is not such, then why should the Shias abstain from their values alone?

Yes, if we were not present at the time when the flames of war were blazing in the Battle of Siffeen, and if we couldn’t take part in it to sacrifice our lives on Amir al-Momineen (a.s.), then we should at least try not to walk on the path of Abu Musa and Amr e Aas!

Therefore, the pure-hearted and innocent people should always be cautious and know that political unity is different from the unity of beliefs. Those who know how to discriminate, should not mix these two things, and with regard to the Day of Resurrection, we should not sell our pure beliefs to the impure people.

 Whenever we discuss about unity and oneness, our motive should always be political unity, if necessary, or else how can two different groups with two different Imams possibly unite? Is it not such that over issues other than Imamate, individuals of two different nations having different president, is it possible for them to have unity in their laws? Yes, if the enemy attacks both the countries, it is possible for them to unite politically in order to defend themselves and unite in their war against the enemy.

Therefore, when two countries cannot unite on the grounds of their laws, behaviour and characters, because they are following two different law-makers with different beliefs, then for two nations who have majority in different countries, how is it possible for them to unite on the grounds of faith and behaviour? 

Yes, the Book of Allah is one but it is interpreted in different ways. Qibla is the same but the prayer offered in its direction is different. We share the same Prophet (p.b.u.h.) but not everyone paid heed to his words, moreover, his most important commands like the ones in Ghadir, the Hadith of ‘Manzilat’ and all the sayings regarding the Holy Progeny (a.s.), were abstained.

Therefore, with respect to unity and oneness, we should be careful if we are walking on the path of Amr e Aas, or we share the same belief as Ammar e Yasir and are walking on a path that ends in paradise.

  1.  In the Battle of Siffeen, some of the prominent Arab men like Zul Kalaa’, some of the most pious and god-fearing people like Abdullah bin Suwaid, along with other common men of the society, like the followers of Zul Kalaa’, were of this belief that as per the prophecy of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), they should surely be with the army in which Ammar exists. Because as per the saying of his holiness, the criteria of a group’s rightness and aptness is the presence of Ammar in that particular group.

Therefore, they considered Imam Ali (a.s.) and his army on the right path provided that Ammar is along with them, or else, they did not have faith and awareness regarding the greatness and righteousness of Imam Ali (a.s.).

And this proves this point that even after years of his governance over Syria and rule over the people, Mu’awiyah did not mention a single saying of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) regarding the attributes of Imam Ali (a.s.) and the Holy Progeny, and they did not have any awareness and cognizance regarding the Prophet’s Holy Progeny – which is a pillar of the religion.

Thus, if Mu’awiyah spoke about Salaat, fastings etc. it was only for the establishment of his government and not because he had faith in Islam. Therefore, wherever he felt that the religious commands can be harmful for him, he either remained silent or introduced them to the people in the opposite manner. Therefore, instead of praising and acknowledging the efforts of the Holy Progeny (a.s.), he tried to denounce them, and this itself proves that Mu’awiyah was a political leader, not a religious governor.

If Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas had faith in God, His Prophet, His Book and the Qibla, and they did not wish to fight anyone who possessed these beliefs, then why did the not accept the invitation of Amir al-Momineen (a.s.) towards the Holy Quran before the fight had begun?

And why did they start the fight? Were there two Gods, two Prophets, two Books and two Qibla, which cause them to begin the war and when they felt their defeat, their God, Prophet, Book and Qibla became one?

If Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas truly believed in God and His Prophet, His Qibla and Book, and considered themselves unified with the people of Iraq and Imam Ali’s army on these grounds, and considered fighting against each other against the unity and oneness, then after the Battle of Siffeen, why did the friends of Mu’awiyah attack the Iraqi nation several times and shed the blood of Muslims in large numbers?

The case of the military assaults designed by the son of Irtaat, on the command of Mu’awiyah, has been mentioned by both the Shia and Sunni clerics in their books; weren’t these military assaults and the killings of defenceless Muslims a breach of unity and oneness?

Similarly, the attack on Egypt by Amr e Aas, with Mu’awiyah’s directions, and his assaults on that land, and the killing of innocent people due to their love for Imam Ali (a.s.), and the martyrdom of Mohammad bin Abi Bakr, and the burning of his corpse inside a donkey’s skin, were these acts done on the grounds of unity and oneness?

If Mu’awiyah was ‘Khaal ul-Momineen’ or the uncle of Believers because he was the brother of Umm e Habiba, then Mohammad bin Abi Bakr was also ‘Khaal ul-Momineen’ as he Ayesha’s brother and Abu Bakr’s son. Was the fight between one ‘Khaal ul-Momineen’ and other ‘Khaal ul-Momineen’, and thereafter, setting ablaze the corpse of Mohammad bin Abi Bakr inside a donkey’s skin, an evidence of the unity of Mu’awiyah with those who believed in the same God, Qibla and Quran?

  1.  A point which is extremely significant and worth focusing is that the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) openly said in this narration:

‘This conspiracy will entangle the people throughout the future history until the government of justice is established and justice prevails in the society’.

Therefore, as we said earlier, these misleading thoughts and misguiding beliefs were not confined to the time of Mu’awiyah and Amr e Aas, but they will continue to exist until the arrival of Imam e Asr (a.t.f.s.); just the way it was mentioned by the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) in the Hadith.

Thus, we should be very careful that we don’t walk on the path of these misguiding beliefs until the just and rightful government of Imam e Asr (a.t.f.s.) prevails in the entire world.

At that time, when the worldwide government of Imam e Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) will overcome the entire world with its justice, and eradicate these conspirers from the pages of history, love and friendship will dominate the hearts, unity and oneness will attains its true form, and there will not be any jealousy and immorality in the people; just like the beginning of justice was with this family, it will end by the hands of the powerful divine asset of the Holy Progeny (p.b.u.h.), Imam e Asr (a.t.f.s.).

[1] Chapter Ankaboot, verse 1 and 2

[2] To gain more information regarding ‘Kanzul Ammal: 8/215’ and Fazael ul Khamsa: 3/349 – 363.

[3] Jalwa e Tareekh dar Sharh e Nehjul Balagha: 4/323


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